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Name the Law Making Body of India

At the state level, a simple majority in the Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) is sufficient to exercise all its constitutional powers, except for the decision to have or abolish the Legislative Council under Article 169. Under section 252, the possible consent of the State Legislative Council is also required to enable Parliament to pass laws reserved exclusively for the Legislative Assembly. The declaration of a state of emergency under Article 352(6) must be ratified by Parliament in a manner similar to its constituent power. If the Reign of the President is invoked in a State under Article 356 (c) and its proclamation contains ancillary and follow-up provisions which suspend, in whole or in part, the application of the provisions of the Constitution relating to an organ or authority of the State in order to give effect to the objectives of the proclamation, the proclamation must be made by Parliament within the limits of its constituent power (i.e. not by a simple majority) after 24 December. Constitutional amendment[1],[2] The fundamental function of Parliament is to legislate. All legislative proposals must be submitted to Parliament in the form of draft laws. A bill is a bill within a bill and can only become law if it has received the approval of both Houses of Parliament and the approval of the President of India. The legislative process begins with the introduction of a bill in both Houses of Parliament. A bill may be introduced either by a minister or by a Member other than a minister.

In the first case, it is a government bill and in the second, a private member`s bill. A bill goes through three readings in each house, namely the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, before being submitted to the President for approval. This is a brief description of the legislative process in India. After that, the responsible member can request that the law be passed. This phase is called third reading of the bill. At this stage, the debate is limited to the arguments for or against the bill, without going into details beyond what is strictly necessary. At this stage, only formal, oral or consequential amendments may be submitted. The adoption of an ordinary bill requires a simple majority of the members present and voting.

But in the case of a bill to amend the Constitution, a majority of all members of the House and a majority of at least two-thirds of the members present and voting in each House of Parliament are required. [10] If the number of votes for and against is equal, the President of the Chamber concerned may cast his vote, called a decisive vote. [10] The Constitution gives Parliament the power to amend the Constitution. Constitutional amendment bills may be introduced in either House of Parliament. While motions to introduce laws amending constitutions are passed by a simple majority, a majority of all members of the House and a majority of at least two-thirds of the members present and voting are required to pass effective clauses and motions to consider and pass such laws. Constitutional amendment bills that deal with important matters under Article 368 (2) of the Constitution after their passage by the Houses of Parliament must also be ratified by at least half of the state legislatures. Any bill to be considered by the Rajya Sabha will be reviewed by the Deputy Speaker for its constitutional validity as it does not violate constitutional provisions/procedures. The Vice-President should not allow constitutional amendments to be adopted as part of ordinary legislation. Article 71 (1) of the Constitution allows the Supreme Court to investigate and rule on violations of the Constitution committed by the Vice-President. Any Indian citizen who has violated the Constitution does not have the right to continue to sit in Parliament or to be elected as a Member of Parliament. The Supreme Court may remove the Deputy President for electoral abuse or if he is not eligible to be a member of the Rajya Sabha under the People`s Representation Act 1951.

[7] The process of adding, amending or repealing part of the Constitution by Parliament as part of its constituent powers is referred to as amending the Constitution. [1] The procedure is set out in Article 368. An amending law must be passed by each House of Parliament by a majority of the total number of its members, if at least two-thirds of the members are present and voting. In addition, certain amendments affecting federal and judicial aspects of the Constitution must be ratified by a majority of state legislators. The two houses (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) of Parliament are not scheduled to hold a joint session to pass a bill amending the Constitution. The fundamental structure of the Indian Constitution cannot be altered or destroyed by constitutional amendments under the constitutive powers of Parliament without judicial review by the Supreme Court. Under the 24th Amendment, Parliament, in its constituent capacity, cannot delegate its function of amending the Constitution to another legislature or to itself in its ordinary legislative capacity. [2] First reading refers to (i) a request for authorization to introduce a bill in the House of Representatives, which will pass the bill; or (ii) in the case of a bill introduced and passed by the other House, the bill before the House as passed by the other House. After a bill has been introduced, the Speaker of the appropriate House (spokesman for the Lok Sabha or the Speaker of the Rajya Sabha or a person acting on his behalf) may refer the bill to the appropriate standing committee for consideration and report thereon. When a bill is referred to a standing committee, the committee examines the general principles and provisions of the bill before it and reports on it. The Committee may also seek the opinion of experts or the public opinion of persons interested in the action. After studying the bill in this way, the committee presents its report to the House.

The committee`s report, which is persuasive, is considered advice. [10] Bills are submitted to both Houses of the Indian Parliament in the form of a Bill. A bill is a bill that, when passed by both Houses of Parliament and approved by the President, becomes an Act of Parliament. Once the bill is drafted, it must be published in newspapers and the public is invited to express itself democratically. The bill can then be amended to mobilize public opinion constructively and can then be introduced in Parliament by ministers or private members. The former are called government laws and the latter private membership bills. Invoices can also be classified as public invoices and private invoices. A public bill refers to a matter that applies to the public generally, while a private bill refers to a particular person, corporation or institution. Orphanages and welfare homes or Muslim Waqf laws are examples of private bills.

A bill pending in the Lok Sabha for any reason will expire if the Lok Sabha is dissolved. [5] However, Rajya Sabha bills never expire and can remain pending for decades. [6] The laws of India are enacted by the Union Government for the whole country and by the state governments for their respective states, as well as by municipal councils and local districts.

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